When Do You Prune Fruit Trees – Pruning & Grafting Apple Trees.

When Do You Graft & Trim Apple Trees

Warmer temperatures are here, which means many of our activities we outdoors enthusiast love are upon us, such as; time to start tapping trees for Maple Syrup, cutting Scions, Pruning Fruit Trees (if not done in November), Cutting Firewood for next season, Clearing Downfall from Winter, preparing for the Spring Turkey Hunt, and well you get the point more activities then we have time for.

Today I find myself in the Apple orchard cutting new Scions for starting my own Apple Trees on the 64 acres of land I just purchased. The land needs some adjustments and one of those adjustments will be to plant a few hundred apple trees throughout. Yes since I have many different types of mature apple trees, which produce hundreds of new Scions each year (root-stock is less than $2), I will plant dozens of apple trees in selected areas. Down in the Valley I will plant mostly Connell Reds, with a few HoneyCrisp mixed in, since they do not require much work, are hardy to diseases & weather, and produce a lot of apples.

How to Create Better Deer habitat

In the pastures (fields) between the wooded areas I will only place a few trees (Conned Reds & HoneyCrisp) and let most of the pasture grow for deer bedding and the Pheasants. I will keep the grass trimmed around the trees, but only mow the field once every two years. All trees will require fencing, so I will buy 5ft Galvanized Welded fencing and make a 5ft diameter around the tree. I will use electrical fence post (3 post) to support the fence. Once the trees have been in the ground for 3 – 4 years I will cut the fence in half, double the circumference, wrap chicken wire around the tree’s base (very loose), add another electrical fence post (4 total), and move the fence up off the ground by weaving it on the 4 post. This will help protect the trees until they’re large enough to survive any damage the deer or rabbits my cause.

*Note; I put all my new trees (root-stock with sciosn) in a fenced off garden for two years before transferring them to the orchard or field. Currently I have just over 100 trees ready to be transferred from my garden.

On this new land I will start two different apple orchards, one close to the new home I’m going to build and the other on one end of the tillable. These two Orchards will include Connell Reds, Wealthy, HoneyCrisp, Sweet Sixteen, & Zestar. I will also plant White Spruce, Norway, & Blue Spruce in the deer crossing corridors to help reserve these crossing and to heighten the Deer’s sense of security.

When To Prune Apples Trees

Next weekend (Feb 18th) I will start trimming my apple trees in the orchard since the weather is warmer than usual. Typically I like to do this in November or the first of March, but with the warmer temperatures this year I will get an early jump on it. Once done with the Orchard I will get back out to the new land and continue to clean up the woods.

How To Improve Your Woods For Hunting

Another way to improve your woods, other than planting trees is to cut down some trees. By taking down dead trees, cleaning up downfall, cutting up trees that are leaning, and making brush piles you can improve the floor of the woods greatly. The brush piles will create cover for game such as rabbits and grouse, while cutting up the trees allows for more sunlight to penetrate to the ground/floor and improve vegetation and new tree growth. You can also thin out smaller diameter trees to allow for the larger and more mature trees to grow and develop faster. Both of these techniques will enrich your woods and make it cleaner and easier for walking and hunting.

*Note, be careful in sloped areas or areas of erosion. If you have questions or are concerned about Forestry Management consult your DNR Forestry Dept.

How Do Honeybees Make Honey!

Collecting Nectar & Pollen For Winter

It’s Oct 24 and there are only a few warm days left for the Honeybees to gather nectar and pollen for their Winter food supply. So this is why you see so many Bees working aggressively during these final warm Fall days. Yes, Honeybees use both Nectar & Pollen for a food source and here is why!

Collecting Nectar

To make Honey a honeybee needs to fly to several hundred flowers to gather its Nectar. To collect this nectar the bee sucks it from the flower and stores it in its Nectar Sac, or a separate stomach for just storing nectar. When the nectar sac is full the honeybee will return to the hive and pass the nectar to the indoor bees via their mouths. These indoor bees will do the work of reducing the water content down by chewing the honey and passing it on to another bee until the water content is only 17% – 20%. To evaporate more water from the honey, the bees will place the honey into the honeycomb and fan it until the correct water content is reached, then the comb will be sealed with wax and stored for Winter use (food).

The Honey Process

So how was the honey made and where did the water come from. The water is in the Nectar the flower produced, but the honey is made as the bee sucks the nectar into its mouth. There the bees have glands that secrete an enzyme into the Nectar (sucrose), which generates glucose and fructose honey. Sounds gross right, but it does taste good! Note, Honey produced by Honeybees has a low pH that is inhospitable to bacteria, mold, and fungi, allowing it to last for years without refrigeration.

What If The Honeybee Gets Hungry

If the honeybee gets hungry and needs energy during its travel is can open a valve in its Nectar Sac, allowing a portion of the nectar to passe through to it’s stomach. At the hive the bee can eat honey already produced if needed. Note, A bee will produce 1/12 of a teaspoons of honey in its lifetime, so you can see it takes a lot of Honeybees to make a quart of honey.

Why Do Bees Collect Pollen

Pollen is used as a food source, but it does not produce the Honey we all know so well and like. The honeybee also stores the pollen on its back legs instead of in a special sac like the nectar, as you can see in the picture below. But how is it used? The bees will mixed the pollen with honey making a Bee Bread (food), which is rich in protein and the main food source for both the larvae and new baby bees. Note, A bee can collect about have their body weight in pollen.

What To Do When You Encounter Bees – Attacking Bees

How To Minimize Bee Stings Once You Have Disturbed Their Hive

The most common bees that Outdoorsmen encounter during their Hunting, Camping, or Hiking adventures are the Yellow Jackets. So you need to know what to do when you have accidentally disturbed a hive? Now the question is NOT are you going to get stung, but rather what to do to minimize the number of stings? Here I will give you a few tips on what to do based on which type of bee you have accidentally threatened.

Bumble Bees – Honey Bees – Wasp

These types of Bees are more aggressive toward their intruder, when the intruder stays in the immediate area. So run and seek shelter quickly if you want to minimize the number of times you’re going to get stung.

While running try to protect the majors areas such as your face, if in the woods run through thick brush to help confuse the bees, and keep running until they stop their pursuit or you find shelter. Avoid getting into the water or thinking you can dive underwater to escape them. This is a false safety haven the many have come to believe will work. This does not work and creates a serious situation for you, as you must come up for air and the only thing exposed is your face.

Honey Bees

The Honey Bee can only sting once and then it will die, however the stinger along with the remaining venom is left in the skin of its victims. To avoid squeezing more venom out of the stinger and into your body remove it by using your fingernail or the blade of your survival knife and scrape sideways across the stinger.

Yellow Jackets – Ouch!

Yellow Jackets are different then most other bees and running make things much worse and the reason I’m writing this article. I have accidentally disturbed these bees many times and this past weekend was another exciting one. You will see the bees and my plastic bag next to the log in my video and I will explain how I avoided hundreds of stings. Oh ya, these things hurt like heck and I prefer the Bees mentioned above over these things. If I had to decide which ones I want stinging me I would start with the Honey Bee!

How to minimize Yellow Jacket Bee Stings

I learned at age 8 not to run from these guys as I got stung 102 times, so here is what I do. Once I realize what I have done I start stepping backwards, keeping them off my face, and killing as many as I could during their attack. Yes, you will get stung as I took eight to twelve hits in this case, but I avoided hundreds of stings, which is what would have happened if I just started running. The last time I was in this situation was just last year in my Apple Orchard, and I only got stung 5 times then, so I strongly believe this is the best way to avoid Yellow Jacket stings, other than not to piss them off in the first place.

Avoiding Hundreds Of Stinging Yellow Jackets

Here is my story. I was in the woods clearing my last shooting lane for Archery when the log I just pushed started pouring out Yellow Jackets. Now due to experience I know exactly what not to do (Do Not Run!). Running makes these bees more aggressive and they will follow the air stream or vacuum you create when running and be on you quickly. Instead I dropped the plastic bag I had in my hand and continued backing up, away from the swarming bees. I then killed any Yellow Jacket that landed on me or stung me since they can sting multiple times. I also focused on protecting my face and mashing bees against my body or between my hands. I continued this, while walking backwards, until no more bees attacked.

Now, I very fortunate as I’m not allergic to bee stings or or insect bites, but let me tell you it still hurts like hell. I have always said I would prefer Honey Bees, Wasp, or Bumble Bees, over those Yellow Jackets. But it seems the only Bees I ever encounter anymore in the Woods or Orchard are those dang Yellow Jackets. Last year I was pulling some fence out from around my Apple trees and again opened up a hive. Yep, I got it that time too, but only a few stings, and I was in shorts, a muscle shirt and sandals without socks. Now the Black Lab took off 90 miles an hour, but I walked away slowing, getting stung maybe 5 times, but on the ears. Which brings up another good point.

What Part Of Your Body Do Yellow Jackets Attack First

Yellow Jackets like to go high with their attack and will head for the ears of its prey first, then the neck, face, & head. So focus on keep these areas protected during any attack.

Tips For Minimizing Bee Stings

1- know your bees and how to react to each type.
2- If you disturb a yellow jacket nest slowly walk away protecting your face, ears, head and neck. Do not swat at them as they will quickly sting your hands. Swift movements will only attract more yellow jackets.
3- Use thick brush or vegetation when trying to escape from bees. This will help confuse them and minimize the number of bees pursuing you.
4- Seek shelter as quick as you can
5- All but the Honey Bee can sting multiple times, so kill as many bees as possible during your escape.
6- Do not use water as a safe haven (security) as this creates a serious and dangerous situation for you.
7- Allergic reactions to bees stings may cause shock and life threatening conditions. Those with known allergies should carry sting treatment kits and be prepared to seek prompt medical attention if stung.

Yellow Jacket Video – 20 Minutes Later

Here are the Yellow Jackets I disturbed, using my phone I took this small video. You can see even after 20 minutes these bees are still pissed off! Also note the sound, not the bees themselves, but the humming sound. It sounds like a magnetic field or some type of energy field phasing in and out.

How To Grow Your Own Fruit trees – A perfectly Cloned Fruit

Why Grow Your Own Fruit Tree – Growing Apple Trees

Why would anyone want to grow or develop their own apple trees when you can buy them and not have to worry about anything but planting them? Well even if you purchase your apple trees from a local nursery you still need to take care of them if you are going to get a high quality apple of them year after year. But there are many other benefits from growing your own Fruit Trees.

What Is The Best Way To Grow Your Own Apple Trees Or To Start An Orchard

I strongly believe the best method for starting your own Apple Orchard is by growing your own Fruit Trees from Root-stock. Yes it will take you two extra years for Fruit, but you will get the trees and the fruit you want, at a fraction of the cost.

By growing your own Apple Trees you choose the Root-stock that is most suitable for you and your geographical area. Then you graft onto that Root-stock the Scion or Bud of the Apple you want to grow. These Scions and Buds will grow an exact clone of the fruit in which you took the Scion or Bud from. So by asking around and finding apple trees that family or friends may have, choosing those that are great tasting or good for cooking, you will get more than enough Scions and Buds to grow hundreds of trees in one year.

You may wonder, by taking these Scions & Buds are you hurting the Fruit Trees you have taken them from, no! What you want to take are the Scions that will be removed when trimming the tree back for next Spring, so they would be just tossed away anyways. And one long Scion will have many Buds that can be used to produce many new Apple Trees. Also, one nice Scion will be long enough to cut four or five sections, each with 3 or 4 buds, to use for grafting.

Benefits From Growing Your Own Apple Trees

Here are a few benefits for growing your own Apple Trees;

You choose the type of tree you want; Dwarf, Semi-Dwarf, or Standard.
You choose the best Root-stock that will grow in your soil type and climate (region).
You choose the best Root-stock that also gives you the disease resistances you want.
You now graft which Apple you plan to clone.
After 3 years you can also graft (clone – exact genetic code) other types of Apples onto the same tree.

Is It Hard To Graft Scions & Buds To Root-stock

Grafting is very easy to learn, but practice on a bench first before trying any grafting. I found after the first year, learning how to do multiple grafts, I get 100% success on Root-stock and 98% when grafting to large branches or trunks.

When Will I See Fruit

When growing Apple Trees from Root-stock you will see a few blossoms after the first year, but you want to pick these off, not allowing any apples to grow until the fifth year. This gives the tree time to develop its root system and become stronger.

How Fast Will My Trees Grow

The growth of your Apple Trees will depend on you Root-stock, soil, and the weather. However since you need to plant these new trees in your garden for the first two years, protecting them from the Rabbits and Deer, you can control all these elements. Since I use Semi-dwarf root-stock my trees grow like this;

Buds- The first year (same year of the graft) you will see no growth to 1 inch.
Scions – The first year (same year of the graft) you will see 8 inches to 3 feet of growth.
Buds – The second year you will see an additional 2 feet to 3 feet of growth.
Scions – The second year you will see an additional 2 feet to 3 feet of growth.
Buds & Scions – After 5 years you looking at an 8 to 10 foot tree.

See why the Bud Graft is the best graft!

Thinning Fruit Trees – Why & When to Thin The Apples Off Your Trees

Why Thin Fruit From Your Apple Trees

Why would anyone consider thinning Apples off a perfectly good Apple Tree instead of just letting them grow, producing more Apples? Well the answer is, you will lose in the long run on both quantity and quality.

Why Thin Fruit Trees

Whether you’re an orchard owner, have a hobby orchard, or just have a few fruit trees in the yard there are great benefits for thinning your fruit or apples off your trees. Here are a few of those benefits;

To avoid biennial fruit bearing (Growing Consistent Fruit year over year).
Improving the Fruit size, shape, color, and taste.
Avoiding limb damage from a heavy fruit load
Avoiding early fruit drop.

When To Thin Fruit From Your Apple Trees

I prefer thinning fruit after pollination, during the early fruit growth and before the June Drop. The June Drop is Nature’s way of thinning out the fruit for you, but in many fruits such as Apples, Pears, and plums it’s not enough. When thinning Apples I like to thin anytime between the growth stages of ¼” to 1” in diameter. The smaller diameter fruit is easier to pinch off with your fingers, where the larger diameter of Apple may require a tool to cut it off. Thinning can also be done during the bloom stage, but I find it more difficult without damaging the other blossoms.

For the June Drop you can easily see which apples with be dropped as their stems will turn yellow to dark red, while those apples that will not be affected will still have a good green stem color.

What Fruit To Thin From your Apple Trees

When thinning your apples you want to break up those clusters. In each cluster you have the center apple, known as the “King Bloom” that you want to try and keep. However if this apple is small, insect damaged, fruit to fruit damaged, or scabbed then you will want to remove it. The idea here is that you want to develop one apple per cluster that will be the largest and healthiest, which is typically the center fruit. If you look closely you will see that the center stem will be larger and look healthier since it’s a straight extension off the branch, giving it a larger connection to the energy source, while the other stems are growing off on an angle.

When working clusters I like to use ~4 inches between them, but experiment over the years and see what gives you the best results; 4, 6, or 8 inches.

The Process I like to follow

1. Take the cluster of apples and inspect each one. This takes a few seconds is all.
2. If the center apple, also knows as the “King’s Fruit” looks good remove the rest.
3. If center apple is malformed, diseased or damaged and there is a better fruit, take the better fruit.
4. Next remove the rest of the apples in the cluster, working from the smallest to the largest.

*If you end up with two very nice large apples in your cluster, I recommend keeping the center one, but that’s a decision you will have to make. Other tips that could help you in this decision are; keep the one facing the sun more, or if both have equal sun exposure then the one that is definitely larger without question.